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Uzbekistan - Economy (Facts)
Economy - overview: Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings. Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry may boost growth prospects. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an 'alliance,' which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In December 2005, the Russians opened a 'Trade House' to support and develop Russian-Uzbek business and economic ties. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), both organizations dominated by Russia. Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets. US firms have not made major investments in Uzbekistan in the last 5 years.
GDP - real growth rate: 7.3% (2006 est.)
GDP (purchasing power parity): $55.75 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $10.83 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,000 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 31.1%
industry: 25.7%
services: 43.2% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line: 33% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 22% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.6% officially, but 38% based on analysis of consumer prices (2006)
Labor force: 14.44 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 44%
industry: 20%
services: 36% (1995)
Unemployment rate: 3% officially by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed (2006)
Budget: revenues: $4.08 billion
expenditures: $4.24 billion; including capital expenditures of NA (FY07 est.)
Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate: 10.8% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production: 49 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 47 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports: 6.8 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports: 10.5 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Oil - production: 142,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - consumption: 148,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA
Oil - proved reserves: 594 million bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas - production: 62.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 12.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - imports: NA
Agriculture - products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Exports: $5.51 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities: cotton, gold, energy products, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles
Exports - partners: Russia 23.9%, Poland 11.8%, China 10.5%, Turkey 7.5%, Kazakhstan 6%, Ukraine 4.7%, Bangladesh 4.4% (2006)
Imports: $3.99 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals
Imports - partners: Russia 27.8%, South Korea 15.6%, China 10.4%, Kazakhstan 7.3%, Germany 7.1%, Ukraine 4.8%, Turkey 4.5% (2006)
Debt - external: $4.713 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $91.6 million from the US (2005)
Currency: UZS
Currency code: UZS
Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soum per US dollar - 1,219.8 (2006), 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004), 771.029 (2003), 423.832 (2002)
Fiscal year: calendar year

Facts at a Glance: Geography - People - Government - Economy - Communications - Transportation - Military - Climate - Current Time - Ranking Positions
Notes and Commentary: People - Economy - Government and Political Conditions - Historical Highlights - Foreign Relations - Relations with U.S.

Facts at a Glance
Current Time
Ranking Positions

Notes and Commentary
Government and Political Conditions
Historical Highlights
Foreign Relations
Relations with U.S.

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