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World > Middle East > Iraq > Government and Political Conditions (Notes)

Iraq - Government and Political Conditions (Notes)


GOVERNMENT
Iraq is a constitutional democracy with a federal system of government. The 2005 Iraqi Constitution guarantees all Iraqis basic rights in many areas. The executive branch is made up of the Presidency Council (one president, two deputy presidents) and a Council of Ministers (one prime minister, two deputy prime ministers, and 34 cabinet ministers). The President is the Head of State, protecting the Constitution and representing the sovereignty and unity of the state, while the Prime Minister is the direct executive authority and commander in chief. Beginning in 2006, the military and police began transitioning from being under the operational control of the Multi-National Forces-Iraq command to Iraqi command and control. The President and Vice Presidents are elected by the Council of Representatives (CoR). The Prime Minister is nominated by the largest bloc in the Council of Representatives. Upon designation, the Prime Minister names the members of his cabinet, the Council of Ministers, which is then approved by the Council of Representatives. The Council of Representatives may withdraw confidence from the Prime Minister, in which case the Prime Minister and Cabinet are considered resigned. Under normal circumstances, the executive branch serves a four-year term concurrent with that of the Council of Representatives.

Iraq's legislative branch consists of an elected Council of Representatives and an as-yet unformed Federation Council. The Council of Representatives consists of 275 members, each of whom is elected to four-year terms of service. At least one-quarter of the members of the Council of Representatives must be female. The responsibilities of the Council of Representatives include enacting federal laws, monitoring the executive branch, and electing the President of the Republic. The Federal Council will be established, by law, as a representative for governorates and territories that are not organized in a region.

Iraq's judicial branch is independent, and is under no authority but that of the law. The federal judicial authority is comprised of the Higher Judicial Council, Federal Supreme Court, Court of Cassation, Public Prosecution Department, Judiciary Oversight Commission, and other federal courts. The Higher Judicial Council supervises the affairs of the federal judiciary. The Federal Supreme Court is the highest court in the country, and the final authority on legal decisions. The establishment of the federal courts, their types, and methods for judicial appointments will be set forth by laws enacted by the Council of Representatives.

Principal Officials of the Iraqi National Unity Government
President--Jalal Talabani
Vice-President--'Adil 'Abd al-Mahdi
Vice-President--Tariq al-Hashimi
Prime Minister--Nuri al-Maliki
Deputy Prime Minister--Salam al-Zawba'i
Deputy Prime Minister--Barham Salih
Minister of Agriculture--Yaroub al-Abodi
Minister of Communications--Muhammad Tawfiq Allawi
Minister of Culture--vacant
Minister of Defense--Abdel Qader Jassim Obeidi al-Mufraji
Minister of Displacement & Migration--Abd al-Samad Rahman Sultan
Minister of Education--Khudayyir al-Khuza'i
Minister of Electricity--Karim Wahid
Minister of Environment--Narmin 'Uthman
Minister of Finance--Bayan Jabr
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Hoshyar Zebari
Minister of Health--vacant
Minister of Higher Education--Abd Dhiyab al-Ajili
Minister of Human Rights--Wijdan Mikha'il
Minister of Housing & Construction--Bayan Daza'i
Minister of Industry & Minerals--Fawzi al-Hariri
Minister of Interior--Jawad al-Bulani
Minister of Justice--vacant
Minister of Labor & Social Affairs--Mahmud Muhammad Jawad al-Radi
Minister of Municipalities & Public Works--Riyad Ghurayyib
Minister of Oil--Husayn al-Shahristani
Minister of Planning--Ali Baban
Minister of Science & Technology--Ra'id Fahmi Jahid
Minister of Trade--Abd al-Falah al-Sudani
Minister of Transportation--Karim Mahdi Salih
Minister of Water Resources--'Abd al-Latif Rashid
Minister of Youth & Sports--Jasim Muhammad Ja'far
Minister of State for Civil Society--vacant
Minister of State for CoR Affairs--Safa al-Safi
Minister of State for Foreign Affairs--Rafi Hiyad al-Isawi
Minister of State for Governorates Affairs--vacant
Minister of State for National Dialogue Affairs--Akram al-Hakim
Minister of State for National Security Affairs--Shirwan al-Waili
Minister of State for Tourism and Antiquities--vacant
Minister of State for Women's Affairs--Fatin Abd al-Rahman Mahmud

Major Political Parties and Organizations [Leaders]
Assyrian Democratic Movement [Yonadam Kanna]; Al-Da'wa [Ibrahim al-Ja'afari]; Badr Organization [Hadi al-Amiri]; Constitutional Monarchy Movement [Sharif Ali Bin al-Hussein]; General Conference of Iraqi People [Adnan al-Dulaymi]; Hewar National Iraqi Front [Saleh al-Mutlaq]; Independent Iraqi Alliance [Falah al-Naqib]; Iraqi Hizballah [Karim Mahud al-Muhammadawi]; Iraqi Independent Democrats [Adnan Pachachi]; Iraqi Islamic Party [Muhsin Abd al-Hamid]; Iraqi National Accord (INA) [Ayad Allawi]; Iraqi National Congress (INC) [Ahmad Chalabi]; Iraqi National Unity Movement [Ahmad al-Kubaysi]; Iraqi Turkmen Front [Faruk Abdullah Abdurrahman]; Jama'at al-Fadilah [Ayatollah Muhammad 'Ali al-Yacoubi]; Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) [Massoud Barzani]; Kurdistan Islamic Union [Salaheddine Muhammad Bahaaeddin]; Mithal al-Alusi List [Mithal al-Alusi]; Muslim Ulama Council [Harith Sulayman al-Dari]; National Democratic Movement; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) [Jalal Talabani]; Al-Risalyun [Muqtada al-Sadr]; Al-Sadr Movement [Muqtada al-Sadr]; Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (ISCI, formerly the Supreme Council of the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, SCIRI) [Abdul Aziz al-Hakim]; Yazidi Movement for Reform and Progress

Note: The Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan, the Iraqi List, and the United Iraqi Alliance were electoral blocs consisting of the representatives from the various Iraqi political parties. Alliances and Electoral blocs are subject to change.


Facts at a Glance: Geography - People - Government - Economy - Communications - Transportation - Military - Current Time - Ranking Positions
Notes and Commentary: People - Economy - Government and Political Conditions - Historical Highlights - Foreign Relations - Relations with U.S.



Facts at a Glance
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Current Time
Ranking Positions


Notes and Commentary
People
Economy
Government and Political Conditions
Historical Highlights
Foreign Relations
Relations with U.S.





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