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World > Africa > Chad > Government and Political Conditions (Notes)

Chad - Government and Political Conditions (Notes)


GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
The constitutional basis for the government is the 1996 Constitution. A strong executive branch headed by the president dominates the Chadian political system. Following his December 1990 military overthrow of Hissein Habre, Idriss Deby in the mid-1990s gradually restored basic functions of government and entered into agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) intended to carry out substantial economic reforms, including the Doba Basin oil extraction project.

The president has the power to appoint the prime minister and the Council of State (or cabinet), and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chad?s parastatal firms. In cases of grave and immediate threat, the president, in consultation with the National Assembly President and Council of State, may declare a state of emergency. Most of the Deby?s key advisers are members of the Zaghawa clan, although some southern and opposition personalities are represented in his government.

According to the 1996 Constitution, National Assembly deputies are elected by universal suffrage for 4-year terms. Parliamentary elections were last held in April 2002, with President Deby?s MPS party winning a large majority. The Assembly holds regular sessions twice a year, starting in March and October, and can hold special sessions as necessary and called by the prime minister. Deputies elect a president of the National Assembly every 2 years. Assembly deputies or members of the executive branch may introduce legislation; once passed by the Assembly, the president must take action to either sign or reject the law within 15 days. The National Assembly must approve the prime minister?s plan of government and may force the prime minister to resign through a majority vote of no confidence. However, if the National Assembly rejects the executive branch?s program twice in one year, the president may disband the Assembly and call for new legislative elections. In practice, the president exercises considerable influence over the National Assembly through the MPS party structure.

Despite the Constitution?s guarantee of judicial independence from the executive branch, the president names most key judicial officials. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief justice, named by the president, and 15 councilors chosen by the president and National Assembly; appointments are for life. The Constitutional Council, with nine judges elected to 9-year terms, has the power to review all legislation, treaties and international agreements prior to their adoption. The Constitution recognizes customary and traditional law in locales where it is recognized and to the extent it does not interfere with public order or constitutional guarantees of equality for all citizens.

Principal Government Officials
President--Idriss Deby
Prime Minister--Nouradine Delwa Kassire Koumakoye
Minister of Foreign Affairs and African Integration--Ahmad Allam-mi
President of the National Assembly--Nassour Guelengdouksia Ouaidou
Ambassador to U.S.--Mahamat Adam Bechir

The Republic of Chad maintains an embassy in the United States at 2002 R Street, NW, Washington, DC 20009 (tel: 202-462-4009; fax 202-265-1937).


Facts at a Glance: Geography - People - Government - Economy - Communications - Transportation - Military - Climate - Current Time - Ranking Positions
Notes and Commentary: People - Economy - Government and Political Conditions - Historical Highlights - Foreign Relations - Relations with U.S.



Facts at a Glance
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Climate
Current Time
Ranking Positions


Notes and Commentary
People
Economy
Government and Political Conditions
Historical Highlights
Foreign Relations
Relations with U.S.





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