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World > South America > Peru

   flag of Peru
   Peru

Introduction:
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, returned to the presidency with promises to improve social conditions and maintain fiscal responsibility.


Official name: Republic of Peru
Capital: name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Government type: constitutional republic
Population: 28,674,757 (July 2007 est.)
Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
Official Currency: Peruvian Neuevo Sol (PEN)

Current Peruvian Neuevo Sol Exchange Rates
Historical Peruvian Neuevo Sol Exchange Rates
Chart Peruvian Neuevo Sol Exchange Rates
Currency code: PEN
Area: total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes


Map of Peru
map of Peru


Facts at a Glance: Geography - People - Government - Economy - Communications - Transportation - Military - Climate - Current Time - Ranking Positions - Peruvian Neuevo Sol Exchange Rates
Notes and Commentary: People - Economy - Government and Political Conditions - Historical Highlights - Foreign Relations - Relations with U.S.



Facts at a Glance
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Climate
Current Time
Ranking Positions
Peruvian Neuevo Sol Exchange Rates


Notes and Commentary
People
Economy
Government and Political Conditions
Historical Highlights
Foreign Relations
Relations with U.S.





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