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World > Asia > Mongolia > Economy (Facts)

Mongolia - Economy (Facts)
Economy - overview: Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. Copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-02 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth was 10.6% in 2004, 5.5% in 2005, and 7.5% in 2006, largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolia's chief export partner and a main source of the 'shadow' or 'grey' economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy, but the former's actual size is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizable, and money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
GDP - real growth rate: 7.5% according to official estimate (2006 est.)
GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.852 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.54 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,100 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 21.7%
industry: 27.9%
services: 50.4% (2005)
Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 37% (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (2005 est.)
Labor force: 1.577 million (2005)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 39.9%
industry: 31.4%
services: 28.7% (2005)
Unemployment rate: 3.3% (2005)
Budget: revenues: $695.3 million
expenditures: $634.5 million (2005 est.)
Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production: 3.43 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - consumption: 2.94 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports: 15.95 million kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports: 125 million kWh (2006)
Oil - production: 821.9 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 11,220 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports: 821.9 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - imports: 12,280 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - imports: NA
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Exports: $1.064 billion f.o.b. (2005)
Exports - commodities: copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners: China 68.4%, Canada 11.2%, US 7%, South Korea 5.1% (2006)
Imports: $1.184 billion c.i.f. (2005)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners: Russia 30.1%, China 29.8%, Japan 12% (2006)
Debt - external: $1.38 billion (2005)
Economic aid - recipient: $203.35 million (2005)
Currency: Mongolian Tugrik (MNT)
Currency code: MNT
Exchange rates: togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,179.6 (2006), 1,205 (2005), 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002)
Fiscal year: calendar year


Facts at a Glance: Geography - People - Government - Economy - Communications - Transportation - Military - Climate - Current Time - Ranking Positions
Notes and Commentary: People - Economy - Government and Political Conditions - Historical Highlights - Foreign Relations - Relations with U.S.



Facts at a Glance
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Climate
Current Time
Ranking Positions


Notes and Commentary
People
Economy
Government and Political Conditions
Historical Highlights
Foreign Relations
Relations with U.S.





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