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World > Asia > India > Economy (Facts)

India - Economy (Facts)
Economy - overview: India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for more than half of India's output with less than one third of its labor force. About three-fifths of the work force is in agriculture, leading the UPA government to articulate an economic reform program that includes developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. The government has reduced controls on foreign trade and investment. Tariffs averaged 12.5% on non-agricultural items in 2006. Higher limits on foreign direct investment were permitted in a few key sectors, such as telecommunications. However, tariff spikes in sensitive categories, including agriculture, and incremental progress on economic reforms still hinder foreign access to India's vast and growing market. Privatization of government-owned industries remained stalled in 2006, and continues to generate political debate; populist pressure from within the UPA government and from its Left Front allies continues to restrain needed initiatives. The economy has posted an average growth rate of more than 7% in the decade since 1996, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India achieved 8.5% GDP growth in 2006, significantly expanding manufacturing. India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Economic expansion has helped New Delhi continue to make progress in reducing its federal fiscal deficit. However, strong growth - more than 8 percent growth in each of the last three years - combined with easy consumer credit and a real estate boom is fueling inflation concerns. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social, economic, and environmental problem.
GDP - real growth rate: 9.2% (2006 est.)
GDP (purchasing power parity): $4.156 trillion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $804 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,800 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19.9%
industry: 19.3%
services: 60.7% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: 25% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 33.5% (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (2006 est.)
Labor force: 509.3 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 60%
industry: 12%
services: 28% (2003)
Unemployment rate: 7.8% (2006 est.)
Budget: revenues: $109.4 billion
expenditures: $143.8 billion; including capital expenditures of $15 billion (2006 est.)
Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production: 630.6 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption: 587.9 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports: 60 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports: 1.5 billion kWh (2004)
Oil - production: 785,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 2.45 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports: 350,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - imports: 2.098 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - proved reserves: 5.371 billion bbl (1 January 2005 est.)
Natural gas - production: 28.2 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.63 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Exports: $112 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities: textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
Exports - partners: US 17.4%, UAE 8.5%, China 7.9%, UK 4.4% (2006)
Imports: $187.9 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities: crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Imports - partners: China 8.5%, US 5.9%, Germany 4.5%, Singapore 4.5% (2006)
Debt - external: $132.1 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $2.9 billion (FY98/99)
Currency: Indian Rupee (INR)

Current Indian Rupee Exchange Rates
Historical Indian Rupee Exchange Rates
Chart Indian Rupee Exchange Rates
Currency code: INR
Exchange rates: Indian rupees per US dollar - 45.3 (2006), 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003), 48.61 (2002)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March


Facts at a Glance: Geography - People - Government - Economy - Communications - Transportation - Military - Climate - Current Time - Ranking Positions - Indian Rupee Exchange Rates
Notes and Commentary: People - Economy - Government and Political Conditions - Historical Highlights - Foreign Relations - Relations with U.S.



Facts at a Glance
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Climate
Current Time
Ranking Positions
Indian Rupee Exchange Rates


Notes and Commentary
People
Economy
Government and Political Conditions
Historical Highlights
Foreign Relations
Relations with U.S.





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