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World > Africa > Ethiopia > Economy (Facts)

Ethiopia - Economy (Facts)
Economy - overview: Ethiopia's poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture, accounting for almost half of GDP, 60% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with exports of some $350 million in 2006, but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qat to supplement income. The war with Eritrea in 1998-2000 and recurrent drought have buffeted the economy, in particular coffee production. In November 2001, Ethiopia qualified for debt relief from the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, and in December 2005 the IMF voted to forgive Ethiopia's debt to the body. Under Ethiopia's land tenure system, the government owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans. Drought struck again late in 2002, leading to a 3.3% decline in GDP in 2003. Normal weather patterns helped agricultural and GDP growth recover in 2004-06.
GDP - real growth rate: 10.6% (2006 est.)
GDP (purchasing power parity): $74.88 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $13.32 billion (FY05/06 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,000 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 46.7%
industry: 12.9%
services: 40.4% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line: 38.7% (FY05/06 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 33.7% (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13% (2006 est.)
Labor force: 27.27 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80%
industry: 8%
services: 12% (1985)
Unemployment rate: NA
Budget: revenues: $2.679 billion
expenditures: $3.388 billion; including capital expenditures of $788 million (2006 est.)
Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production: 2.294 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption: 2.133 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption: 29,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports: NA bbl/day
Oil - imports: NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves: 428,000 bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, qat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Exports: $1.085 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, qat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds
Exports - partners: China 10.5%, Germany 8.7%, Japan 7.4%, US 6.8%, Saudi Arabia 5.8%, Djibouti 5.8%, Switzerland 5.1%, Italy 5% (2006)
Imports: $4.105 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles
Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 18.1%, China 11.4%, India 8.1%, Italy 5.1% (2006)
Debt - external: $6.038 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $1.6 billion (FY05/06)
Currency: Ethiopian Birr (ETB)
Currency code: ETB
Exchange rates: birr per US dollar - 8.69 (2006), 8.68 (2005), 8.6356 (2004), 8.5997 (2003), 8.5678 (2002)
note: since 24 October 2001 exchange rates are determined on a daily basis via interbank transactions regulated by the Central Bank
Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July


Facts at a Glance: Geography - People - Government - Economy - Communications - Transportation - Military - Climate - Current Time - Ranking Positions
Notes and Commentary: People - Economy - Government and Political Conditions - Historical Highlights - Foreign Relations - Relations with U.S.



Facts at a Glance
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Climate
Current Time
Ranking Positions


Notes and Commentary
People
Economy
Government and Political Conditions
Historical Highlights
Foreign Relations
Relations with U.S.





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